Monday, December 9, 2019

Religion In James Joyces A Portrait Of The Artist Essay Example For Students

Religion In James Joyces A Portrait Of The Artist Essay As A Young Man. Religion and Its Effect on Stephen DedalusReligion is an important and recurring theme in James Joyces APortrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Through his experiences withreligion, Stephen Dedalus both matures and progressively becomes moreindividualistic as he grows. Though reared in a Catholic school, severalkey events lead Stephen to throw off the yoke of conformity and choosehis own life, the life of an artist. Religion is central to the life of Stephen Dedalus the child. He wasreared in a strict, if not harmonious, Catholic family. The severity ofhis parents, trying to raise him to be a good Catholic man, is evidencedby statements such as, Pull out his eyes/ Apologise/ Apologise/ Pullout his eyes. This strict conformity shapes Stephens life early inboarding school. Even as he is following the precepts of his Catholicschool, however, a disillusionment becomes evident in his thoughts. Thepriests, originally above criticism or doubt in Stephens mind, becomesymbols of intolerance. Chief to these thoughts is Father Dolan, whosestatements such as, Lazy little schemer. I see schemer in your face,exemplify the type of attitude Stephen begins to associate with hisCatholic teachers. By the end of Chapter One, Stephens individualismand lack of tolerance for disrespect become evident when he complains tothe rector about the actions of Father Dolan. His confused attitude isclearly displayed by the end of the chapter when he says, He was happyand free: but he would not be anyway proud with Father Dolan. He wouldbe very kind and obedient: and he wished that he could do something kindfor him to show him that he was not proud. Stephen still has respectfor his priests, but he has lost his blind sense of acceptance. As Stephen grows, he slowly but inexorably distances himself fromreligion. His life becomes one concerned with pleasing his friends andfamily. However, as he matures he begins to feel lost and hopeless,stating, He saw clearly too his own futile isolation. He had not goneone step nearer the lives he had sought to approach nor bridged therestless shame and rancor that divided him from mother and brother andsister. It is this very sense of isolation and loneliness that leads toStephens encounter with the prostitute, where, He wanted to sin withanother of his kind, to force another being to sin with him and to exultwith her in sin. He wants to be loved, but the nearest thing he canfind is prostitution. In the aftermath of this encounter and thenumerous subsequent encounters, a feeling of guilt and even morepronounced loneliness begins to invade Stephens being. Chapter Threerepresents the turning point of the novel, for here Stephen turns hislife around. After the sermon on sin and hell, Stephen examines his souland sees the shape it is in, wondering, Why was he kneeling there likea child saying his evening prayers? To be alone with his soul, toexamine his conscience, to meet his sins face to face, to recall theirtimes and manners and circumstances, to weep over them. Religion pushesits way suddenly and unexpectedly back into Stephens life. After hisconfession at the end of Chapter Three, he begins to lead a life nearlyas devout as that of his Jesuit teachers and mentors. Even as he leadsthis life, however, shades of his former self are obliquely evidentthrough statements such as, This idea had a perilous attraction for hismind now that he felt his soul beset once again by the insistent voicesof the flesh which began to murmur to him again during his prayers andmeditations. Here it is evident that, even as his life becomes more andmore devout, he can never lead the perfect and sinless life of theJesuit. The offer of a position as a priest is met by memories of hisch ildhood at Clongowes and thoughts such as, He wondered how he wouldpass the first night in the novitiate and with what dismay he would wakethe first morning in the dormitory. Stephen realizes that the clericalcollar would be too tight for him to wear. A walk on the beach confirmsthis thought in Stephens mind through the statement, Heavenly God!cried Stephens soul in an outburst of profane joy. The sight of awoman and the knowledge that, as a priest, he could not even talk toher, finally convinces Stephen to abandon religion. His running escapefrom the woman also symbolizes his run from religion and restriction, arun to freedom, to the life of an artist. .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 , .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .postImageUrl , .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 , .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5:hover , .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5:visited , .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5:active { border:0!important; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5:active , .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5 .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uae89dfd0abba631abe01d7ad5454b0c5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: History 12 EssayThe life of an artist is one of individuality and solitude, both ofwhich Stephen exhibits in the final chapter. Religion is the last thingon Stephens mind as he formulates his theses on art, aesthetic beauty,ideal pity and ideal terror. While these theses are important to thecontinuity of the novel, religion does not resurface until much later. Near the end of the novel, Cranly sees the folly of the life Stephen istrying to make for himself. He is surrounding himself with beautifulthoughts and images, but these images will not hold him later in life. Realizing such, Cranly gently tries to push religion back into Stephenslife, stating, Do you not fear that those words may be spoken to you onthe day of judgment? This question, however, is met by the rebuke,What is offered me on the other hand?An eternity of bliss in thecompany of the dean of studies? Stephens bitterly sarcasticdenunciation of the religious life represents a final break from allreligion. The end of Stephens life in Ireland rings hollow, for thisexchange shows the emptiness he has to show for it. In response to thequestion of whether he loves his mother, Stephen says, I dont knowwhat your words mean. This statement shows the lack of love inStephens life that results from the absence of religion, for withoutreligion there can be no true feeling or outlet for these feelings. While Stephen eventually turns away from religion, it is an importantfacet in his development as an artist. Religion, originally one of thenets by which he flies, leads to the loss of his naivet and later tohis disillusionment with a conformist society as a whole. Stephensthoughts are too independent and liberal for his contemporaries, andthus it is inevitable that he will cast away his nets, reject society,and become an artist. Religion disturbs, shapes, and finally changesStephen for good. While religion leads to an artistic and lonely life,Stephen can never totally break from his family or need forcompanionship. At the close of the novel he says, Old father, oldartificer, stand by me now and ever in good stead, belying the factthat no matter how independent Stephen becomes, no man can be an island. Category: English

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Popular Music Isnt Cool Essays - Music Industry, Music, MTV

Popular Music Isn't Cool Pop Culture Isnt Cool From my point of view, Great pop music is an oxymoron. These days people look to the media for the answer to everything, including what music to listen to, or in most cases what music to play in the back round. Im not saying all pop fans are closed minded to the point where they listen to the music genre that is currently trendy in hopes of it helping them position themselves socially. Im also not denying the fact, people like that are out there. In most cases, I think people listen to pop because for some reason theyre not involved in another music scene, so its all they know exists. Record labels systematically chose who they want to sign, and then promote them to the public. Therefore, they have an enormous influence on what music America and many other countries listen to. This is bad news because corporate promoters dont just go out looking for talent to sign to their label regardless of what kind of music it is attached to. Companies use statistics to determine what they think will sell, and sign whoever fits the right criteria. They dont bother looking for artists who arent playing whats hot; they want bands playing the sound they know sells. Labels also want bands with catchy songs, and I dont know about you but I think catchy giggles are for advertisements. Real musicians have to be careful where they put their signature, because any one who takes them self seriously wouldnt stand for a company who censers their art. Also you may have noticed TV is now just as much a source of music as radio, so you better be an attractive conformist if you want to be promoted as an artist in the business of pop music. MTV, without doubt, plays a major role in how generic popular music has become. Obviously the birth of music videos gave big business a chance to sell music to the other four senses. The real opportunity for MTV to cash in on the music industry wasnt just picking up their crumbs. Just luring in those people whose ears are uninterested in music with flashy colors and shiny things is no longer their motive. Quickly MTV figured out eye candy doesnt sell nearly as well as the fantasy life the right image can supply. There is nothing wrong with having an image, everyone portrays an image whether they like it or not. In this case the problem is, MTV uses image to sell a product where image should be considered irrelevant. The effect of doing this is closing the viewers minds; it causes people to listen to music only on the expressional level. This blinds people from the fact that on the purely musical level the product is elementary, and in my opinion more often resembles noise than music. Maybe you already knew all the things I have said thus far, but you disagree with my views on the issue. Then we see things from a different angle, and that ok by me. You might like the things Ive said, but dont totally agree with me because you figure Im problely just a cynical basterd. Ive got no credentials, for all you know I cant back up a single word Ive said. Just to show you Im not the only one who has such distaste for MTV and the other big brothers of the music industry, Ill quote someone with a bit of a longer r?sum? than I do. Jerry Garcia, along with the rest of the Grateful Dead, holds the record for playing the most concerts ever. 30 years of dedicated fans proves Jerry to be knowledgeable in the field of music. Incase Jerrys opinion might be worth more to you than mine, Ill quote something he said once at Dead concert (I have the tape): We were trying to figure out if we were going to sit down or stand up while we were playin, and I think the industry standard is you sit down. Then vary sarcastically he said; You know thats the right way to do it because thats the way they do

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Spitting Image

Spitting Image Spitting Image Spitting Image By Maeve Maddox ELVIS’ SECRET SON FOUND: Handsome 32-year-old is the spitting image of The King Thats to say, the young man looks exactly like Elvis. The underlying image is that of a man spitting out a child in his own likeness, rather like Cadmus sowing the dragons teeth from which sprang full-grown men. NOTE: Some fastidious folk etymologists have tried to elevate the expression from the realm of expectoration by suggesting that spit and image derives from the phrase spirit and image. Not likely. The Online Etymology Dictionary gives 1602 as a date for spit used with the meaning the very likeness. The Phrase Finder cites this 1689 reference from George Farquhars play Love and a Bottle: Poor child! hes as like his own dadda as if he were spit out of his mouth. The expression has appeared in various forms: the spit A daughter,..the very spit of the old captain. (1825) the spit and fetch He would be the very spit and fetch of Queen Cleopatra. (1859) the spit an image Shes like the poor lady thats dead and gone, the spit an image she is. (1895) the dead spit Ill chance you having another ring..the dead spit of mine. (1901) the spitten image He looked the spitten picture of my ould father. (1887) the spittin image Hes jes like his pa, ï ¿ ¼the very spittin image of him! (1901) the spitting image In another twenty years..she would be her mothers spitting image. (1929) the spit-image My husband saw a man that was the spit-image of King no further away than Jackson. (1949) The OED gives an example of Westmoreland dialect in which splittin image is used instead of spittin image. A possible explanation is given by D. Hartley in Made in England (1939): Evenness and symmetry are got by pairing the two split halves of the same tree, or branch. (Hence the country saying: hes the ‘splitting image’ï ¿ ¼an exact likeness.) Spitting image is definitely the winning version. Most modern speakers would hear splitting image as a malapropism. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Great Similes from Literature to Inspire YouWhat is Dative Case?How to Write a Proposal

Saturday, November 23, 2019

How to Get More Traffic From Every Post

How to Get More Traffic From Every Post by Noah Kagan, Chief Sumo at (free tools to grow your website traffic) Traffic can feel a bit like catch-22. You need people to share your posts but if you have no traffic there’s no one to share At the start of 2014, I decided to prioritize my email list and grow my blog from a small side project to one of the top marketing blogs. In less than a year, traffic grew by more than 400%! Today, I want to show you 10 actionable strategies you can use to grow your own blog’s traffic each time you publish a new post.How to Get More Traffic From Every Post (Plus How OkDork Grew Traffic 400% In 8 Months)  @noahkagan1- Start Building And Prioritizing Your Email List Growing your email list is an amazingly vicious cycle. You get subscribers, email them when an article goes live, they go read it and then share it with people. Then those people subscribe and the cycle delightfully continues. But, to build an email list you have to ask for visitors email addresses. The easiest way to do that is to use plugins for your blog. I use the SumoMe plugin (built by AppSumo) and the apps List Builder and Scroll Box. The tools will help you start building an email list without any technical knowledge. (Scroll Box is a great way to ask engaged readers to sign up towards the end of a postyou can set it to appear only after someone has read 50% or 75% of your post.) The blog is a great example of what you should be doing if you want to build an email list. Each blog post there is a chance to sign up at the top and in the middle of the post. They also have a pop-up that has a persuasive offer to first time or one-off visitors Now, if you had to pick only one place to ask for emails, where would you ask? It’s not in a pop-up or a scroll box: it’s your homepage. Before 2014, my homepage included links to recent blog posts, archives, and the menu bar. After using heatmaps, I removed all of the distractions and left visitors with only 1 option: Now my most trafficked page is also my #1 email address generator. If you’re serious about growing your email list, make it extremely simple for each visitor to give you their email address. Pro tip: How To Turn Your Blog Readers Into Paying Customers 2- Be Part Of A Community I got involved in two key communities for marketers: GrowthHackers and Before asking for anything from these communities, I did my best to spend time where my readers are, add value, comment in the forums, share articles and upvote other posts (not just OkDork posts). Being part of these communities helped pinpoint what posts our target audience (other marketers) wanted to read, the common elements of the most liked/upvoted posts, and made it more natural to ask for help promoting OkDork content. As a result, by mid-2014 GrowthHackers and were the two largest referring sites to OkDork. Engage your readers (or customers) where they are already spending time. Respond to their questions, suggest resources, add value every time you login or visit the site. Find a forum, sub-reddit, or a similar site that carries your target audience, become part of the community, add value back, and then begin to submit your own high-quality content. Pro Tip: 50% Places To Repurpose Your Content 3- Publish Long Content Arguably the biggest change that brought traffic to OkDork was reaching out to writers who had lots of marketing data that could be put into long form content. Why? Because the content was outrageously good and exactly what our target audience/community wanted. In fact, the majority of viral articles are over 3,000+ words and explore a single topic in depth. The longer the post the most shares it got. (Plus each guest writer notified their own email list and shared the post on Twitter which brought additional targeted traffic to OkDork.) Although it may be tempting to write lots of short content or to ask guest writers to write short posts, set your standards high and publish long content that contains more of what your audience wants. Take note of the posts that get lots of share within your community and make sure you do the same with each post. If your community is data driven include 10x as many statistics or if they are image driven add 10x more images than usual. Pro Tip: 5 Things That Will Change Your Mind About Long Form Content Marketing 4- Build An Inner Circle In May 2014, I put together a list of 15 to 20 friends, colleagues, fans that a) wanted to help me and b) were already enjoying the content on the blog. This â€Å"Inner Circle† or â€Å"Insiders List† reviewed upcoming posts and provided an early traffic boost to new posts - often by sharing it 24 to 48 hours before the post was sent out by email to my main list. Here’s the first email I sent to the Inner Circle: To build your own â€Å"Inner Circle† first list out: Interesting people within the community you are a part of; Customers/readers who provide constructive feedback; People who regularly send you the best articles or resources; Any people connected to special sites or channels you want to be on; And a few influencers who seem too good to be true. After you have the list, send an email like the one above that explains why they were selected, what the list is, and what they’ll get. Offer them a way out so that you’re not spamming people each week. Once you have their permission send an email from your personal account once a week or once every two weeks with a link to the latest blog post. It’s also important to occasionally help your Inner Circle with whatever they are working on. 5- Post On Popular Aggregate Sites In the past, when a new post was live on OkDork I occasionally shared it on a few sub-reddits or a community site like GrowthHackers. There was no system and in the busyness of running a blog, there were times when it wasn’t shared at all. To solve this two things happened: I developed an â€Å"Inner Circle† (above) Created a checklist of the top aggregate sites that referred traffic in the past. The checklist helped me see which aggregate sites and sub-reddits had not yet posted the article. Most of the time the Inner Circle took care of sharing it on their favorite sites, but if a site was missing it was easy to remember to add it or reach out to someone I knew was active in that particular community or site. To create your own checklist list out the top sites/groups/sub-reddits where your customers/visitors spend time. 6-   Make Images and Posts Easy to Share As traffic grows on your site, one of the most obvious ways to help it along is to make it easy to share the content on multiple channels. If a visitor has to copy the link, create a new email, and then share it you’ll only have a few people sharing the article. Again does an awesome job at this with its floating social icons on the left of each post and with an image sharing plugin to make sharing images easier. On OkDork I added the Share plugin to so that on each post people can easily share it on the usual channels Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn. The plugin also offers a bunch of other services like Evernote, Amazon Wishlist, Digg, and plain ol’ email. I’m convinced that great long form content gets shares 1) because great content and 2) everyone wants their friends to think they read an indepth article whether they actually read it or not so make sure it’s as easy as possible to share! Pro Tip: Where Is The Best Place To Put Social Media Buttons On Your Blog 7- Repromote Your Old Content Repromoting old content was one of the easiest ways to grow traffic on OkDork. Every two months, we used Google Analytics to find content that hadn’t been visited over a certain threshold in the previous three months. (That threshold should vary depending on your own site.) Then we scheduled each post to reshare it on Twitter, Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn, etc. over the next three months. The advantage of this is you don’t have to do much work (no creativity required). You can also repromote and schedule content you just posted as well. Here’s a simple graphic from to show you how: Pro Tip: How Promote Your Blog With Social Media (And Double Your Traffic) 8- Quotes In my most popular posts (most shared and organic search), I added quotes throughout. While this had a smaller impact on overall traffic than some of the other methods, it is a more organic way to ask someone to share the post. When you select the best quotes from an article you make it easier to read, share, and re-share. As you repromote old content, you’ll also see an uptick in the number of shares. If you’re not already, you should be using the Plugin to make tweeting selections of your blog post a breeze. SumoMe also offers a highlighter that allows a user to â€Å"† their own selections. It’s a nice complement to the plugin. 9- Send The Highlights Of Each Post In An Email By now the tactics are getting really easy†¦but this is an important one. One of the biggest contributors to traffic came through the email list, but we found a simple way to drive traffic and get a boost in click through rates: making it easier and sexier to click through. Emails announcing a new blog post tend to do one of three things: Mention 1 new post and include a lead paragraph Link out to multiple new posts each with a lead paragraph Include an entire post in the email The first two aren’t terribly convincing- the meat of an article is almost never in the first paragraph! And the third option provides 0 reasons to actually click through and visit the site (meaning no additional traffic). Beginning this past summer, when an OkDork goes out it mentions only 1 new post and breaks out the 3 of the most valuable insights. It’s extremely simple (example below) and doubled click through rate from an average of ~5-6% to ~12-15%. Spend time figuring out what is most valuable to your audience and include those highlights in the email. Pro Tip: 5 Easy Lead Conversion Tips For Your Email Marketing Program 10- Publish on a Regular Schedule The other thing I did was create a calendar that we followed closely to make sure that new posts were going out every week and we didn’t fall behind. If you’re reading this on you already know that publishing regularly is critical to traffic. Not only does it help you be consistent, it creates a healthy expectation within your community and for your readers. A regular schedule made all of the other 9 strategies above doubly effective. In fact, if you’re not publishing regularly or at least with a consistent rhythm many of the tactics above will fall flat or produce few results. Pro Tip: Start A Free Trial Of Now

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Spanish vs. English colonization of America Essay - 1

Spanish vs. English colonization of America - Essay Example Spanish conquest and colonization. There were millions of people living in the Americas when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492. In the following centuries the population of the Native Americans decreased steadily (Brading 48). The writings of the Dominican friar Bartolomà © de Las Casas vividly depict atrocities committed on the natives by the Spanish conquistadors. â€Å"It was a general rule among Spaniards to be cruel; not just cruel, but extraordinarily cruel so that harsh and bitter treatment would prevent Indians from daring to think of themselves as human beings or hav-ing a minute to think at all.† (Las Casas 70). At the same time, the Spanish rulers in America were unhappy at the high mortality rate of the natives, since they wanted to exploit the Indians laborers. The Spaniards were committed to converting their American subjects to Christianity, often by force. However, as Cook mentions (94), â€Å"American groups simply blended Catholicism with their traditional beliefs, which could not have been regarded as a success†. Nowadays, among many scholars it is believed that epidemic disease was the main cause of the population decline — the figure of 80% is mentioned related to those who may have died due to European diseases, such as chicken-pox and measles (Cook 94, 212).

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Exploring ethics in contemporary business Assignment

Exploring ethics in contemporary business - Assignment Example Further, decisions in an organisation are taken, for instance, to mitigate risks or brainstorm for the best alternatives to move an organisation to the next level (Guest & Woodrow, 2012) . In a hierarchical organisational structure, decisions are made in boardrooms by the top management without involving other employees. Consequently, the style of leadership in a hierarchical organisational structure tends to be authoritative, where the decision made by the top management is final (Ahmed, Bwisa, & Karanja, 2014). In such a case where decisions go wrong, the management should be held accountable for poor decision-making. On the contrary, while a flatter organisational structure allows other employees to take part in the decision-making process, the management still has the last word regarding the ideal decision to be implemented (Michaelson, 2010). In this sense, ethical issues arise whether it is appropriate to hold an employee accountable for poor decision-making in an organisation. In an organisation, decision-making entails a process of tackling a problem by looking for a solution that will bring about value for an organisation’s stakeholders. In essence, decisions in an organisation can be programmed or non-programmed. In the former, decisions are normally repetitive and routine while, in the latter process, decisions tend to be novel and unstructured (Ahmed, Bwisa, & Karanja, 2014). Some of the models in the literature that can be associated with organisational decision-making include the Rational, Carnegie, Incrementalist, Unstructured and the Garbage Can models (Glockner & Betsch, 2011). With regard to the rational model, the process of making decisions is straightforward and involves a three-step process. The three steps encompass identifying the problem, brainstorming for an ideal alternative and selecting the best among others to implement. In most organisational setups, the rational model is the most common

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Current Issues in Law and HR Course Work Essay Example for Free

Current Issues in Law and HR Course Work Essay Organizations are considered to be the most incentive, social arrangement of today. It’s considered a marvel to know that thousands of people with individual backgrounds, skills and interests are coordinated into various organizations, so that they can pursue their common institutionalized goals and objectives. The historians of the future see today’s organizations as the greatest achievement of our time and era. For example biogenetic engineering have had some breakthroughs. The Apollo mission to the moon was made possible by the organization called NASA. Even on day to day basis organizations play an important role in our lives. The water we drink to the food we eat or the clothes we wear all comes from different kinds of organizations Human resource is defined by many companies as a combination of the administrative functions with the performance of the company’s employees and their relations along with the company’s planning. Human resource basically develops mostly from industrial and organizational behaviour. The major function that are included in HRM are recruitment, selection, training and development, orientation, placement, separation, career planning, performance appraisal, salaries and wages, incentives and gain-sharing, benefits, services and security and employee relations and assessment. The term human resource basically refers to the people of the company. The manager of the company engages in HR because the HR activities and tasks are considered to be an important part of the company. It basically helps the company to achieve the goals and the objectives that are set for them by the management. As you all know that human resource activities also make a large contribution to the company’s success in many ways but the HR activities mostly support the strategies of the organization. The HR department basically exists to support the managers and the employees of the company and to pursue the company’s goal or objectives (Werther Davis 1996). The major challenges that would be faced by the organization are as follows: †¢ Population-growth challenges †¢ Global Competitive Challenges †¢ Unemployment Challenges †¢ Social Responsibility Challenges †¢ Medical, Food, Housing Challenges †¢ Unknown Challenges †¢ Ethical Challenges †¢ Workforce Diversity Challenges The objectives of the HR department are based on societal, organizational, functional and personal goals. It is known that the objectives of the company are not formally stated that is they are not in the written form. The objective of the human resource management not only reflects the intention of the middle and top management but also balances the challenges that are faced by the HR department. Objectives are basically considered as benchmarks against which the actions can be evaluated. The human resource objectives not only reflect the intention of the management but also balance the organizational challenges, the HR function and the people who are affected by it. If the company fails to succeed in its objectives it would harm the company’s profits, performance and even the survival of the firm. As we know that there are four objectives that are common to the HR management. The objectives are as follows: 1. Organizational Objective: which basically recognizes that the HR management exists and it contributes to the organizational effectiveness. The HR department basically exists so that it can help managers of the company to achieve the objectives and goals of the company. HR management only supports the managers with the human resource issues. If we put is simply the HR department only exist solely to help assist the rest of the company. 2. Functional Objective: which basically states that this objective solely exists to maintain the department’s input at a level that is considered relevant to company’s needs. A relation exists between the objectives and the HR activities and they are appraisal of the employee, placement and assessment of the employee. 3. Societal Objective: this objective shows that the company has to be ethically and socially responsive to the needs and challenges of the society while the company minimizes the negative impacts of such demands on the organization 4. Personal Objective: shows that the HR management helps assisting the employees in achieving their goals and objectives. And these goals enhance the individual’s contribution towards the organization. To achieve these goals the HR department help the managers of the company to obtain, maintain, utilize and retain the right amount and types of workers. The objectives of the employees must be met otherwise the employees would not be motivated, retained and maintained by the HR department of the company. And the employees would neglect their jobs, voice their complaints or maybe leave the organization for a better opportunity (Werther Davis 1996). It is not necessary that all the organization can meet the HR objectives every time. Some sort of trade-offs do occur that stops the company in achieving the stated goals and objectives. When the objectives are net by the department, they make a huge contribution towards the organization’s and employees needs. And with the help of these objectives the managers are able to see the kinds of activities that are needed to be carried out and why. There is a relationship that exists between the objectives and the activities of the HR. For example, for the societal objective the supporting activities would be legal compliance, union and management relations and benefits of the employees. For the organizational objective the supporting activities would be HR planning, employee relations, selection, training and development, appraisal, placement and assessment. For functional objective the supporting activities would be performance appraisal, placement, assessment and development of the employees. And for personal objective the supporting activities would be training and development, performance appraisal, placement, assessment and compensation of the employees. The HR activities are considered as actions that are taken by the department to maintain a workforce balance that is considered as appropriate to the organization’s needs. For example, small companies who do have the HR department have small budgets and small staffs therefore the HR department of such companies only focus on the activities that they consider are important for the company. The functions or activities that are considered important for such companies would be planning, recruitment, and wages and salaries of the employees. The functions that are performed by the HR department of the organization are as follows: Planning is the first activity that is conducted by the department. Planning can be defined as the systematic forecast that determines the company’s future and the demand and supply of the employees that would be needed by the organization. HR planning is also known as employees planning which helps the HR department and other managers of the company to develop staffing plans so that they would go along with the strategy of the company. it is important that the company is staffed with the right amount of people so that the strategic operational and functional goals of the company can be met. It has been realized by a lot companies that the HR plans are very important if the organization wants to have strategic success. For example, companies like Nokia and Apple it is important to have strategic plans because it would help the companies by developing new products and introducing them as quickly as possible in the market. It is only possible when the company is staffed with the right kind of people. Without the right people strategy based opportunities would be lost to a better staffed organization like Motorola and IBM (Werther Davis 1996). Recruitment is one of the important activities of the HR department. Recruitment is mostly concerned with attracting and finding individuals who are capable for employment. The recruitment process begins s when the new recruits are sought and this process ends when the applicant submits and application. People who find new recruits are called recruiters. The process of hiring is faced with some limitations like costs, incentives, job requirements, policies of the company, environment conditions, insufficient and scarce resources and EEO legislation etc. Recruitment is done in two ways 1) internal channel which includes job posting program and departing employees 2) External channel which includes advertising, walk-in and write-ins, employee referrals, state employment agencies, open house, international recruiting, temporary help agencies and leased employees etc (Recruitment Process) Selection is one of the activities of the HR department. Selection is defined as a process that is based on specific steps that are used to describe that which individual should be hired. This process starts when the individual applies for the job and it ends when the final decision is made by the management of the company. the selection process is also faced with some limitations like EEO legislation, Workforce diversity and external prohibitions etc. ( The Selection Process). The selection process is based on eight steps and these steps are as follows:- †¢ Preliminary reception of applications †¢ Employment tests †¢ Selection interview †¢ Preference and background checks †¢ Medical tests †¢ Supervisory interview †¢ Realistic job preview †¢ Hiring decision Orientation, Placement and Separation is considered to be an activity of HRM. Orientation can be defined as when the new recruits are given an overview of the company on the first day of work. The orientation program of the company is based on the following goals 1) the pride of belonging to the company 2) creates awareness about the company’s business 3) emphasize on customer focus and service 4) helps to reduce the concerns that are related to the job 5) helps with development of a team member and 6) helps to establish personal growth etc. Placement can be defined as the work activities that are assigned to a new employee. The role of HR department here is that to advice the managers of the company about the rules and the regulations and it also provide counseling to the employees. Placement is based on 3 classes 1) promotion, transfer and demotion. Separation can be defined as a decision where the individual and the company must part. Separation process starts either the employer or the employee. The role of HR department is to find a method which is satisfactory for conducting a separation in such a way that it reduces the harmful factors that might affect the company. Training Development is concerned with that placing the employees in a job does not give the company the surety that the individual would be successful in his or her job. Training and development programs are considered important for all the employees. The distinction between training and development is that training is for now and development is for the future. For example at Corning Glass there are a lot of learning opportunities that range from skilled orientation training to seminars that deal with development issues, they basically help the managers to face the issues that might arise in the future. The employees of the company are not bothered that the class is intended for training or development. It is only concerned with whether the program has helped the employees and the organization or not (Training and Development). Training and development are based on the following steps: †¢ Need assessment †¢ Learning principles †¢ Program content †¢ Training and development objectives There are some challenges that are faced by HR department due to training and development. For example cost effectiveness, desired program content, learning principles and appropriateness of the facilities etc. The role of HR department over here is that it helps to prepare the individuals for future job responsibilities. And it also attempts stops the employees from obsolesce, work force diversity, technological changes, affirmation action and employee turnover etc. (Werther Davis 1996) Career planning is one of the activities of the HRM. When the department is doing career planning it is mostly concerned with whether the company’s training and development programs has helped the employees with promotion chances or not. A couple of decades ago career planning was seen as an individual’s problem but now career planning is seen as the HR department’s problem. The HR managers and specialist see career planning as a way to meet the internal staffing needs. The involvement of the HR department in career planning is increasing everyday due to its benefits like low turnover, satisfies the needs of the employees, personal growth, helps with workforce diversity and decrease hoarding etc. Performance appraisal is one of the major activities of HRM. Performance appraisal can be defined as evaluating an employee’s current or past performances relative to his or her performance standard. In this competitive world companies require a high performance so that they can become dominant leaders in their perspective markets. And at the same time employees also need feedback on their performance so that it can act as a guide for their future behavior and responsibilities. There are some challenges that are faced by the HR department regarding the performance appraisal like legal constraints, rater’s biases regarding the employee based on halo effect or personal prejudice or even cross cultural biases etc. It has been vied been viewed by the experts that when there is poor performance throughout the company it creates huge problems with the human resource management activities(Grote Grote 1996). Wages and Salaries are concerned with compensation. Compensation can be defined as something the employees receive in their return of their input to the organization. Without proper compensation the employees of the company would leave and it would be difficult for the company to hire new recruits. The result of pay dissatisfaction can harm the productivity of the company and can also harm the quality of work life as well. There are some challenges that affect the compensation plan like wage rates, union, constraints by the government and equal pay etc. ( Salary and Wages) Security, Safety and Health is considered a challenge for the HR experts that how to comply proactively with the minimum costs for the organization and to provide with the minimum of costs for the organization and to provide the greatest of benefits to its employees, whereas in the area of employee security and health companies have taken a proactive action. It is the role of the HR department to face the challenges that arise overtime. The HR is usually faced with 2 kinds of challenges: 1) Internal challenges which are also the organizational challenges. Internal challenges for example would include union, information systems, organizational conflicts between the company and the employees. 2) External challenges are those problems that exist due to the changing environment and the management has no control over it. Change in the company’s environment actually evolves at different kinds of rates. External challenges would include workforce diversity, technology, economics and government. The HR department has to follow 4 steps so that they can overcome the external challenges. They are as follows: †¢ Monitor the environment †¢ Evaluate the impact of the challenges on the company †¢ Take proactive measures that is implement approaches that would help the company to achieve its goals †¢ Obtain and analyze the feedback. It is the role of the HR department to achieve a balance between the trade-offs of efficiency and effectiveness. For example when jobs are under specialized the job design may be simplified by decreasing the number of tasks and if the job is over specialized the number of job tasks can be enriched and expanded by the human resource department.